Sleep disorders cause changes in how you sleep. Abnormalities in sleeping patterns or habits may be harmful to health. People are aware of the general issues in sleeping but here we will be talking about the 12 sleeping disorders listed in the DSM 5
12 Sleep Disorders You Must Know About
1. Insomnia disorder
Ongoing issues with falling and keeping asleep. The majority of insomnia instances are caused by bad sleeping habits, chronic disease, sadness, anxiety, insufficient exercise, or certain medications. Having trouble falling asleep or staying asleep, as well as feeling exhausted, are possible symptoms.
2. Hypersomnolence Disorder
Circumstances that cause you to frequently feel too sleepy throughout the day or to sleep more than normal at night. It is distinct from feeling worn out because of poor or irregular night-time sleep. Examples include not getting enough sleep, jet lag, intense exercise, eating a lot, being pregnant, drinking alcohol, or using marijuana.
A long-term sleep problem that significantly impairs alertness during the day. Although the exact cause of narcolepsy is unknown, genetic factors and abnormal brain signalling may have an impact. Acute sleep attacks are a symptom of narcolepsy. There might be a sudden decrease of muscular tone and hallucinations.
4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea
It is a kind of sleep disorder in which airflow stops or significantly decreases while breathing effort is present. It is the most prevalent kind of sleep breathing problem and is distinguished by recurring episodes of upper airway collapse while you’re asleep.
5. Central Sleep Apnea
When the brain briefly stops delivering instructions to the breathing muscles, central sleep apnea develops. Normal breathing pauses might happen periodically during the night or throughout a cycle. People with specific medical conditions are more prone to developing the disorder. A higher risk of cardiovascular mortality and unexpected, all-cause death is linked to sleep apnea.
6. Sleep-Related Hypoventilation
Hypoventilation is a condition of diminished or insufficient ventilation. Hypoventilation can be brought on by a variety of reasons. However, abnormalities of the respiratory muscles, neurological diseases, and central nervous system depression are the main causes of hypoventilation. Breathlessness and exhaustion are two of these early symptoms.
7. Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders
are issues that develop when the internal clock in your body—which alerts you when it’s time to sleep or wake—is out of sync with the outside world. Your circadian clock repeats itself about every 24 hours. People with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and patients who have experienced head trauma may have circadian rhythm sleep disorders.
8. Non–Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Arousal Disorders
The most frequent incidents of incomplete waking from sleep are caused by non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep arousal disorders, which can also occasionally involve more complicated actions. These events often occur in the first third of the night, and in the morning, people have no recollection of the incidents. The most frequent age group for NREM sleep arousal problems is childhood, followed by ageing.
9. Nightmare Disorder
Is a sleep condition marked by persistent nightmares. The nightmares often happen during the REM periods of sleep and frequently show the person in a position that threatens their lives or personal safety. Although most people have had at least one nightmare in their lifetime, those who have nightmare disorder suffer them more frequently.
10. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder
Is a condition when people act out their dreams during their sleep. It involves REM (rapid eye movement) sleep and abnormal behaviour while sleeping. Screaming, shouting, laughing, weeping, flailing arms, kicking, hitting, choking, and jumping out of bed are frequent themes in the nightmares. Injury to oneself or a bed mate may come from an episode’s behaviours.
11. Restless Legs Syndrome
a sleep disorder, makes you feel compelled to move your legs intensely and frequently (and even your arms or body). Along with other limb sensations like pulling, creeping, tugging, throbbing, itching, hurting, burning, or crawling, it also happens. RLS frequently manifests in the evening, which makes it difficult to get to sleep.
12. Substance/Medication-Induced Sleep Disorder
caused by the use of narcotics, alcohol, or certain drugs. That means that having trouble falling asleep at the time you want to fall asleep, staying asleep at the time you want to stay asleep, being overly sleepy during the day, or engaging in strange behaviours when you do fall asleep is one of the effects of drinking alcohol, using substances, or taking drugs.
These were some of the major sleeping disorders, there are others as well so a person should see a doctor for a correct diagnosis and course of therapy if they believe they may have a sleep disorder. The person can get a precise diagnosis and a treatment plan that is suited to their own requirements by seeking medical guidance. This will assist them in treating their sleep condition and enhancing their sleep, which will enhance their physical and mental health as well as their general well-being.